Friday, April 28, 2017

ABC Survey On Emergency Patient

ABC Survey Consist of :

  • Primary survey
  • Secondary survey
  • History
  • Others


During the initial assessment, as one moves sequentially through the mnemonic ABCDE, life-threatening conditions are diagnosed and corrected at each stage.

A - Upper airway is established and maintained with cervical spine control
B - Breathing (or the adequecy of air exchange) is evaluated and established
C - Circulation - BP is evaluated and corrected, and bleeding is arrested
D - Deficits of neurologic function are identified, and treatment is initiated (AVPU)
E - Exposure is obtained by completely undressing the patient

A - Upper airway is established and maintained with cervical spine control

Cervical spine control

All patients presenting with abnormalities of mental status after trauma, however subtle, must be assumed to have injuries to the cervical spine --> hard cervical collar & manual maintenance of the head in the neutral position. Immobilization must be maintained until radiologic visualization of C1-C7 (and T1?) is complete and determined to be normal. Commonly, an initial view of the cervical spine demonstrates only the more proximal vertebrae; this must never be interpreted as a normal study, and an additional view must be taken while downward traction is applied to the forearms. If the distal vertebrae remain nonvisualized with this maneuver, a swimmer’s view should be obtained.

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